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Pathophysiology Extra Credit -Consolidated

04 May

I’m consolidating the questions that have been submitted so far for the last exam on renal pathophysiology. Feel free to comment on any of these questions, ask for clarifications, or add new ones. I’ll consider any well-stated, quality questions submitted before noon Saturday.


What is the physiological reason the kidneys play a crucial a role in controlling blood pressure. Is it….

A. If your blood pressure is too high it is not good for your heart
B. The angiotensinogen renin system is the best way  <<- I’ve got to think of an alternate answer here
C. The loop of henley can’t withstand the pressure
D. sufficient pressure is required to filter material from blood through the nephron

Answer D


Which lab test is most commenly used as a screening measure of renal function?
A) BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen)
B)Blood Test
C)Serum Creatine << Corrected to Serum Creatinine
D) Sodium Urine output

[Both BUN and Serum Creatinine are useful, but BUN is more likely to fluctuate following meal]


Which type of renal failure is caused by the obstruction of urine output from the kidneys?
A)Prerenal Failure
B)Postrenal Failure
C)Intrinsic Renal Failure
D)End Of Life Renal Failure


A patient recently had a computed tomography (CT) and was diagnosed with Polycystic Kidney Disease. What had the doctor seen that indicated that diagnoses?
A)Renal calculi in the kidneys
B)Fluid-filled sacs in the tubular structures of the kidney
C)Malignant tumor
D)A rapid decline in kidney function

[good question, I like this one]


The clinical manifestations of glomerular disorders generally fall into one of five categories.
– acute nephritic syndrome
– rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
– nephrotic syndrome
– asymptomatic hematuria or proteniura
– Chronic glomerulonephritis

There are also several disease that cause secondary glomerular kidney disease such as systemic lupus, diabetes, and hypertension.

1.) Acute nephritic syndrome evokes an inflammatory response in the glomeruli and results in extracellular fluid accumulation ad edema because of a decreased GFR. What clinical manifestations would a nurse observe?

A. bradycardia, polyuria, dehydration
B. Hematuria, oliguria, hypertension
C. Decreased sensation in the lower extremities
D. None, this typer of Glomerular disease goes unnoticed by the patient and the provider.

Answer: B


2.) The glomerular membrane acts as a size-specific barrier through which filtrate from the blood must pass. One type of glomerular disease that affects this function is know as nephrotic syndrome. What are some clinical manifestations a nurse would observe?

A.) hematuria, oliguria, hypertension
B.) Hyperalbuminemia, dehydration
C.) Proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, generalized edema
D.) None, thype of glomerular disease goes unnoticed by the patient and the provider.

Answer: C


3.) Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis is a syndrome characterized by signs of sever glomerular injury, is rapidly progressive and does not have a specific cause. What is one disease associated with this type of glomerular disease?

A.) Staphycocci infection
B.) diabetes
C.) Goodpasture syndrome
D.) kidney transplant

Answer:  C

[although rare, Goodpasture syndrome is interesting because of its rapid progression and clearly diagnosable immunohistochemistry]


4.) Asymptomatic glomerular disorders are not generally recognized or brought up to healthcare providers, and many times remain undiagnosed. What are two clinical signs associated with asymptomatic glomerular disorders that may be seen in a patient even though they have no other complaints?

A.) Hemituria and proteinuria
B.) Itchy skin and watery eyes
C.) Generalized edema and toenail fungus
D.) Constipation and anxiety

Answer:  A

[why is it that the patient is not seeing the hematuria?]


5.) many immunologic, metabolic and hereditary diseases are associated with glomerular injury. With many of these diseases glomerular injury is a secondary manifestation. What is an example of this type of disease.

A.) Diabetes mellitus
B.) Hypertension
C.) Exema
D.) Both A and B

Answer:  D


1.Painful or difficult urination is called?

A:Nocturia
B:Dysuria
C:Polyuria
D:Stomatitis
Answer B


2.A condition in which very high levels of protein are lost in the urine and abnormally LOW LEVELS OF PROTEINS are present in the blood
A:NEPHROTIC SYNDROME
B:GLOMERULONEPHRITIS
C:ERYTHROPOEITIN
D:HYDRONEPHROSIS
Answer A

[straight from my own extra credit question – how can I not like it?]


3.Very low urine production
A. Proteinuria
B.Renal dysplasia
C. oliguria
D. Hydronephrosis
Answer C

[I like this one too]


4.In renal _____, the kidneys do not develop to normal size.
A.Potter syndrome
B. hypoplasia
C. dysplasia
D. multicystic
Answer: B

[and this]

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9 Comments

Posted by on May 4, 2015 in Uncategorized

 

9 responses to “Pathophysiology Extra Credit -Consolidated

  1. Tayler

    May 5, 2015 at 2:55 pm

    A patient is diagnosed with end stage renal disease. What is the most common cause for this diagnosis?
    A) Glomerulonephritis
    B) Polycystic Kidney Disease
    C) Hypertension
    D) Diabetes

    Answer is D.

     
  2. Tayler

    May 5, 2015 at 2:59 pm

    What type of organism most commonly cause urinary tract infections?

    A) Staphylococcus
    B) E. Coli
    C) Vibro Cholera
    D) Gram positive bacteria

    Answer is B.

     
  3. Sami

    May 8, 2015 at 11:56 am

    Kidney stone formation

    A.) Oliguria
    B.) Nephrolithiasis
    C.) Proteinuria
    D.) Hypogenesis

    Answer: B

     
  4. Sami

    May 8, 2015 at 11:57 am

    A circulating enzyme that works cooperatively with angiotensin to regulate extracellular volume and arterial vasoconstriction.

    A.) Water
    B.) Renin
    C.) Aldosterone
    D.) Creatinine

    Answer: B

     
  5. Sami

    May 8, 2015 at 11:58 am

    What suppresses secretion of ADH? (Select all that apply)

    A.) Diuretics
    B.) Caffeine
    C.) Alcohol
    D.) Food

    Answer: A,B,C

     
  6. Sami

    May 8, 2015 at 11:59 am

    Sodium retaining hormone released from the adrenal cortex.

    A.) Testosterone
    B.) Blood
    C.) Aldosterone
    D.) Angiotensin

    Answer: C

     
  7. Sami

    May 8, 2015 at 11:59 am

    What is the largest component of urine?

    A.) Water
    B.) Sodium
    C.) Nitrogen
    D.) Potassium

    Answer: A

     
  8. downhousesoftware

    May 11, 2015 at 10:57 am

    In playing with Tayler’s Renal function question, I’ve changed it considerably – but it is helpful to know a bit about BUN / Creatinine tests.

     
  9. downhousesoftware

    May 11, 2015 at 11:06 am

    Also, I really like the descriptions of a variety of glomerular diseases and associated questions – HOWEVER, I think the question (labelled #1) under that description confuses some of the symptoms of nephritic syndrome (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nephritic_syndrome) vs those of nephrotic syndrome (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nephrotic_syndrome). I urge you to check out the links to the Wiki pages I’ve provided in order to clarify these differences.
    hint-hint: I’m not just telling you to do this for something to do. I’m definitely including some questions on glomerular disease.
    Even better– check out this link (http://www.pathologystudent.com/?p=888)

     

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